The Psychology and Sociology of Criminality’s Race to Incarceration

 BowTech Health Center

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By Brother Bey , Fraternal Order of X-Offenders | June 1, 2010

Editor’s Note: The West Texas Tribune welcomes Brother Ellsworth Johnson-Bey . Brother Bey is Founder and President of Fraternal Order of Ex-Offenders , Inc. Brother Bey has a wealth of knowledge that is of value to ex-offenders, their families and the general communities regarding strategies to deter, decrease and prevent intergenerational dynamics of adult criminality and child/youth delinquencies. Brother Bey’s organization believes that purpose and passion from all stakeholders who love themselves, family and community can be the fuel that energizes partnerships to resolve social pathologies.{{more}}FOXO is recognized as a local and national prolific training organization. FOXO has partnered and conducted training for a variety of public and private organizations and agencies. Some of these public and private organizations and agencies include: Baltimore Mayor’s Office For Children, Youth and Family PPP focusing on the dynamics and consequences at Children of Incarcerated Parents, Mayor’s Re-Entry Center – training focused on the Psychology and Sociology of Criminality and Cognitive Restructuring, and Behavior Modification 4-day training State of Maryland Division of Parole and Probation. FOXO travels nationwide as a presenter at conferences and workshops. Some of these conferences and workshop include State of Re-Entry and the AA Community , New York City National Ex-Offender Leadership Conference, CDC National Community Coalition in Atlanta, GA, and National President Initiative Conference in Atlanta, GA.The essence of our training resonates from a multi-disciplinary perspective. FOXO’s effective process builds on the holistic system approach that understands that individuals operate within a complex network of individual, family and community. Successful initiatives must be designed to strengthen each of these spheres of influence with the goal in mind to incorporate the wisdom, knowledge and understanding of the therapeutic value of peer mediation.The FOXO’s peer mediation model correlates with the traditional public health model. The public health model promotes a 3-phase approach known as the primary, secondary and tertiary phases. The first phase FOXO incorporates is the primary prevention phase. The primary prevention phase focuses on creating safe environments which looks at the root causes of crime, drugs and violence for ways to proactively eliminate the possibility of death injury and destruction. This phase purges old value system by repeat offenders via cognitive restructuring. The secondary prevention focuses on attitude and behaviors that contribute to death, injury and destruction. This secondary prevention phase focuses on developing new value system through promoting Thinking is Destiny, thereby reducing risk factors that contribute to death, injury and destruction. The third phase is tertiary prevention which promotes advancing intervention through a new paradigm shift for Re-Thinking, Reshaping and Re-Evaluating primary institutions versus secondary institutions and value systems which can become risk factors or protective factors.IntroductionThere is a need to re-think and re-evaluate crime in America and “The Race to Incarceration.”Who Benefits from Criminal Behavior Research data has indicated since the early 1980’s that African Americans “Black on Black Crime” has disproportionally over-represented the investments at all stages of the Criminal Justice, including arrests, prosecutions, convictions and incarceration.Sociologist and criminologist have historically debated over theories regarding causational factors that precipitate anti-chronic social deviance behavior.There are many theories; however the two foundations for most theories are as follow 1.) External social and/or environmental factors, 2.)Group internal factors which are cultural and behavioral factors.The United States Racial Demographics In Black and White General Population The United States racial populations as of 2009 were 79% Whites, 15% Hispanic and 13% African Americans.Prison Population The natural racial composition of the United States prison and jail populations in 2008 was 33.4% Whites, 20.29% Hispanic and more than 45% African American.Crime StatisticsHistorically crime statistics have played a major role in the debate of the relationship between race and crime in the United States. Sociologist and criminologist continue to use crime rates and statistics to promote racial groups cryogenic propensity particularly the African-American ethnic culture because they are disproportionately represented in the arrest and victimization reports which are used to compile crime rate statistics. The Methodologies to Gather Data in U.S.There are primarily three sources used in the United States to collect crime rate statistics.1. Law Enforcement Agencies around the country reports on a monthly basis crime data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation . This data is processed annually on a national basis know as the Uniform Crime Report .2. Victimization Surveys collected biannually by the Department of Justice and process annually in the National Crime Victimization Survey3. Self Reports SurveysContrary to popular thinking the self report survey studies is the best indicators of actual crime rates. All three of these methods of gathering crime data statistical information is used by sociologist and criminologist in their analysis of crime and how it relates to race to incarceration.Don’t Sweat The Small StuffCrime in America is as traditional as cherry pie. Crime is an industry, with a social marketing tool such as major components of the criminal justice system that promote mis-information to local communities via their lack of knowledge regarding the insides and outs of the criminal justice system.Social Limitations on Police Crime Reports 1. Fundamental limitations of police crime reports2. Inaccuracies3. Misrepresentations4. ManipulationOrdinary citizens do not challenge systems when they lie and manipulate crime statistics. Most of the residents do not know that it’s highly likely that all stats.Most of the residents do not know that its highly likely that all stats do not represent the actual amount of criminal activity. The police measure crimes by reported crimes. The citizens do not take into account that most crimes are not reported particularly when the victims may also be offenders such as when a drug dealer is physically assaulted during the course of being robbed. Another example is when a drug addict goes to buy drugs and he or she is robbed of their drugs once they buy the drugs.Special Note: Examples of misinformation to promote crimes are decreasing in America and Baltimore City.Inaccuracies Statistics do not represent the actual amount of criminal activity occurring in any jurisdiction.MisrepresntationMost police data processed by the uniform crime report focuses on street crimes and does not record information on organized crime, corporate crimes or federal crimes.Manipulation Uniform crime report data is prone to manipulation by local law enforcement agencies since information supplied to the UCR is voluntarily.White on White Murders Black on Black Murders Research data indicates that in 2008 there were 14,180 victims and 16,277 perpetrators of murders reported by law enforcement agencies to the Federal Bureau of Investigation.The following data illustrates the racial demographics of murder in the United States in 2008.White Offenders 33% and 83% White victims and 8% Black VictimsBlack Offenders: 37%, White Victims 14% and Black Victims 90%.In 2008 African Americans were arrested more than any other race for murders, making up nearly 40% of all arrest despite the fact that African Americans constitute 13% of the general population. The data indicates the African Americans significantly over represent the total of arrest made and additionally represent nearly 50% of all murder victims.America will continue to be the world example of the pathology of hypocrisy until the citizenry advocate to promote equality when it comes to economic development to decrease the crime of poverty, inadequate education, and health, racial disparities in housing, employment and subservient spiritual and political leadership.Our communities are our responsibilities and whenever we began to have a synergy of energy than our condition and position in America will change proportionately. If we continue to dodge our responsibilities, we will continue to be hit with the consequences. If you would like to get into contact with Bro. Ellsworth Johnson Bey or if you would like more information pertaining to FOXO we can be reached at 410.262.4556 or our webpage at We would also like for you to tune into our radio program via or you can call into our live radio broadcasting Sundays from 2pm-4pm at 1877-704-1010.