The Core Relationship Between the Psychology and Sociology of Criminality Permeated by Poverty

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By Brother Bey , Fraternal Order of X-Offenders | August 1, 2010

Editor’s Note: The West Texas Tribune welcomes Brother Ellsworth Johnson-Bey . Brother Bey is Founder and President of Fraternal Order of Ex-Offenders , Inc. Brother Bey has a wealth of knowledge that is of value to ex-offenders, their families and the general communities regarding strategies to deter, decrease and prevent intergenerational dynamics of adult criminality and child/youth delinquencies. Brother Bey’s organization believes that purpose and passion from all stakeholders who love themselves, family and community can be the fuel that energizes partnerships to resolve social pathologies. Topic: The Core Relationship Between the Psychology and Sociology of Criminality Permeated by PovertyDefinitions:Economics: Social Economics, Political Economics, Finance/Wealth: Poverty: Adversity, Impoverishment, Indigence, Destitution, Distress, Need{{more}}FOXO Note: Purpose for defining the words economics and poverty per say, is to characterize, distinguish, differentiate and interpret the words without ambiguity .The Economics of Poverty Objectives are to educate the public about the core relationship between poverty and criminal behavior.IntroductionDuring the eighteenth century, the use of corporal punishment began to declineas the use of imprisonment began to rise. The spirit of humanitarism that evolved through out the enlightenment period, caused people to reject the inhumanity and criminal manner in which prisoners were treated. Historically, the criminal justice system was created as a form of social control, a method for controlling deviant behavior expressed through unlawful acts conflicting with societal norms, mores and folkways . History indicates that John Howard was a leading advocate of prison reforms who supposedly was credit with the beginning of the penitentiary system. Prison evolutionFOXO’s research indicates that the prison evolution/revolution began with the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia which had individual cells. From that arose the Western Penitentiary System known as Cherry Hill in . Its primary focus stressed solitary confinement of prisoners in individual cells. Auburn System was created in 1817. Its primary focus stressed Individual cells where inmates worked, slept and lived. Nationally, by this time, all states in America adopted this form of prison because it was economical to build and the groups’ free slave labor purchased products therefore increasing profits within the prison industrial complex. The first American Reformatory was established in 1876 at Elmira, NY adopted from the Irish Prison Philosophy in 1860. Also prior to the Elmira, NY Reformatory System, Indiana in 1873 created America’s first women’s Prison. Today, almost every state in America has a Woman’s Prison System. Federal PrisonThe Federal System of Prisons is known as the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The Federal Prison System has three different security levels. The first level of security in the Federal Prison system is known as the Maximum Prison System which was built before 1925. The second level of security in the Federal Prison System is the Medium Prison System which was built after 1925. The third level of security in the Federal Prison System is known as the Minimum Prison System was built after 1950. Criminal Justice Systematic Relationship A crucial problem in the criminal justice system is the failure to recognize the effect that one part of the system has on the rest of the system. The components of the criminal justice system do not operate independently. Based upon the prevalence of crimes, drugs and violent behavior, the criminal justice system must decide the philosophy on which their reaction to those crimes will be predicated.Criminal Behavior: the Search for Crime Causes and EffectsIf criminologists can identify the characteristics of individuals or the characteristics of the society that are highly associated with criminal behavior then they will have a basis for establishing policies, designed to deter, decrease and hopefully to prevent the rate of crime as we see it today in our society.Variables Associated with Juvenile and Criminal Behavior• Family Problems• Problems with Education• Alcohol, Substance Abuse• Family Problems• Socio-Economical Status• Gender• AIDS• SexFOXO Notes: FOXO believes that the ruin of a nation begins in the householdHighly educated people with stable families and with good jobs also become involved with criminal behavior.Criminological Theories and Schools of Thought1. Freewill. The freewill theory premise is the pleasure, pain principle. People choose those actions which give them pleasure and avoid that action which gives them pain. 2. Determinism. The Determinism theory premise primarily emphasizes the biological, psychological and social factor thus introducing the environment into the study of crime.3. Conflict Approach. The Conflict Approach theory premise perceives laws as a conflict, disharmony where the citizenry/proponents do not agree on the nature or source of the conflict.4. Differential Association. The Differential Association theory premise is that criminal behavior is learned just like any other form of behavior. The learning occurs in small groups and is characterized by learning to find illegal behavior as acceptable behavior.5. Ecological Approach. The Ecological Approach theory premise is crime and delinquency has high rates in areas characterized by poverty, physical deteriation and declining populations.6. Anomie. The Anomie theory premise is that many offenders come from families characterized by instability and violence. Many offenders have or had relatives who have been in prison. Anomie literally means lawlessness. Society has goals for its citizenry that are worth striving for, however, in that society, pressure exists to attain these goals. Although society designates appropriate means to attain these goals, however in America, more emphasis is placed on the goals than how to achieve them.Too Often in America there have been misinformation reported leading the public to believe that crime has decreased in America. The truth is that the criminal justice system is still failing while politicians and police chiefs rush to claim credit for the disingenuous declines in crimes most independent observers such as the ordinary John Q citizen continuously feel the debt of the high rates of crime committed by repeat offenders. The issue is the rich gets richer and the poor gets prisons which reflects America’s ideology of race, class and the criminal justice system as part of the American fabric. You may view more information about FOXO’s activities by entering Fraternal Order of X-Offenders on the search engine.Orders for DVDs, requests for seminar presentations or training, direct all questions, comments and concerns to:Brother Ellsworth Johnson-BeyFounder/PresidentFraternal Order of X-Offenders, Inc Proper Education Always Corrects Error P.O. Box 2241Baltimore, MD 21203-2241410-262-4456Website: www.foxo.usE-mail: